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August 15, 2017
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Does your child have allergies? Allergies can cause many ear, nose, and throat symptoms in children, but allergies can be difficult to separate from other causes. Here are some clues that allergies may be affecting your child.

Children with nasal allergies often have a history of other allergic tendencies (or atopy). These may include early food allergies or atopic dermatitis in infancy. Children with nasal allergies are at higher risk for developing asthma.

Nasal allergies can cause sneezing, itching, nasal rubbing, nasal congestion, and nasal drainage. Usually, allergies are not the primary cause of these symptoms in children under four years old. In allergic children, these symptoms are caused by exposure to allergens (mostly pollens, dust, mold, and dander). Observing which time of year or in which environments the symptoms are worse can be important clues to share with your doctor.

Ear infections:

One of children’s most common medical problems is otitis media, or middle ear infection. In most cases, allergies are not the main cause of ear infections in children under two years old. But in older children, allergies may play role in ear infections, fluid behind the eardrum, or problems with uncomfortable ear pressure. Diagnosing and treating allergies may be an important part of healthy ears.

Sore throats:

Allergies may lead to the formation of too much mucus which can make the nose run or drip down the back of the throat, leading to "post-nasal drip." It can lead to cough, sore throats, and a husky voice.

Sleep disorders:

Chronic nasal obstruction is a frequent symptom of seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial (year-round) allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion can contribute to sleep disorders such as snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, because the nasal airway is the normal breathing route during sleep. Fatigue is one of the most common, and most debilitating, allergic symptoms. Fatigue not only affects children’s quality of life, but has been shown to affect school performance.

Pediatric sinusitis:

Allergies should be considered in children who have persistent or recurrent sinus disease. Depending on the age of your child, their individual history, and an exam, your doctor should be able to help you decide if allergies are likely. Some studies suggest that large adenoids (a tonsil-like tissue in the back of the nose) are more common in allergic children.

July 13, 2017
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A common source of the infection is increased moisture trapped in the ear canal, from baths, showers, swimming, or moist environments. When water is trapped in the ear canal, bacteria that normally inhabit the skin and ear canal multiply, causing infection of the ear canal. Swimmers ear needs to be treated to reduce pain and eliminate any effect it may have on your hearing, as well as to prevent the spread of infection.

Other factors that may contribute to swimmers ear include:

  • •Contact with excessive bacteria that may be present in hot tubs or polluted water
  • •Excessive cleaning of the ear canal with cotton swabs or anything else
  • •Contact with certain chemicals such as hair spray or hair dye (Avoid this by placing cotton balls in your ears when using these products.)
  • •Damage to the skin of the ear canal following water irrigation to remove wax
  • •A cut in the skin of the ear canal
  • •Other skin conditions affecting the ear canal, such as eczema or seborrhea


Treatment for the early stages of swimmers ear includes careful cleaning of the ear canal and use of eardrops that inhibit bacterial or fungal growth and reduce inflammation. Mildly acidic solutions containing boric or acetic acid are effective for early infections.


  • •Drops are more easily administered if done by someone other than the patient.
  • •The patient should lie down with the affected ear facing upwards.
  • •Drops should be placed in the ear until the ear is full.
  • •After drops are administered, the patient should remain lying down for a few minutes so the drops can be absorbed.


  • •A dry ear is unlikely to become infected, so it is important to keep the ears free of moisture during swimming or bathing.
  • •Use ear plugs when swimming
  • •Use a dry towel or hair dryer to dry your ears
  • •Have your ears cleaned periodically by an otolaryngologist if you have itchy, flaky or scaly ears, or extensive earwax
  • •Dont use cotton swabs to remove ear wax. They may pack ear wax and dirt deeper into the ear canal, remove the layer of earwax that protects your ear, and irritate the thin skin of the ear canal. This creates an ideal environment for infection.


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August 19, 2016
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Swimmer's Ear

As we're nearing the end of the summer season, many have wondered about what to do for swimmer's ear.

Most people (kids included) can swim safely, regardless of the type of water, and the ears are going to be fine.  In other words, with normal anatomy and natural ear wax, swimming should not create a problem.

However, some people seem to get "swimmer's ear".  Now, the term is colloquial for "acute otitis externa", which is an infection of the outer ear.  This part of the body naturally has several bacteria and fungi in it.  What happens is that the balance can become upset by introducing water into the ear.

The easiest way to restore the balance without much expense is to use a balance of isopropyl alcohol and distilled white vinegar in a 50-50 mix, adding drops into the ear canal with a syringe.  The exact percentage of isopropyl, the exact vinegar, and the syringe versus dropper are debatable, but in general this can alleviate most infections before they become severe.

This is not direct medical advice: if you or your loved one have an allergy to vinegar or alcohol, have had ear surgery, have Bell's palsy, have a hole in the ear drum, or any other medical conditions then you should come in for an appointment right away.

Also, this is not to be thought of as something to do for every day maintenance. Again, the ears naturally take care of themselves, and wax has antibiotic and antifungal properties built in.


This blog post idea started with a question of "How about swimmer's ear and how to avoid? My kids get it the same time every summer. And what about trying to make your teen wear ear plugs, impossible!"

It's true: I was looking through some e-prescribing history, and there are some patients who get a script on or around the same day every year!

It seems there are two possible scenarios: to use ear plugs as a method of controlling the water from getting in, or treating with the aforementioned concoction after exposure, especially during that "same time every summer".

I like these plugs:

And I am not a huge fan of the silcone self-forming ones, since they seem to irritate, can get caught deep, and for kids who have "ear tubes", I have seen them pull the ear tubes out while removing the silicone! 


Some people like the ear bands, like these


The pain of swimmer ear can be intense, for certain.  One may use the pain medicine that you know will help your child or youself , meaning over the counter medicines.


Now, about how to make a teenager wear plugs? 


Take away his or her allowance? I kid: if they get infections, remind them of the pain of getting them if they don't use the plugs.



As most of you know, never use cotton tipped applicators in the ears (e.g. "Q-tips"). Also, if the "ear hole" (the external auditory canal) is too swollen to get any medicine in, they should be brought in for an ear wick and they look like this when inserted

When it come to treating with medical ear drops, there are a few good options.  Sometimes, people are allergic to the ear drops they are prescribed, so if that happens, please come in for an appointment as well. A common thing we see a lot, is that there is a chuild who had swimmer's ear, went to an urgent care center in East Jubip, Anystate and was given an ear drop.  The ear gets worse. This is a red flag, of course!  That patient needs to be examined, so come in for an appointment.


"Surfer's ear" is a condition that is not painful and usually presents in adulthood.  The theory is that chronic cold water exposure in youth stimulates the ear canal to make little bony growths in the canal.  In these, it only presents a problem by either catching wax up on the bumps, or by blocking the soundwaves from getting to the ear drum and deeper.

Diabetics with swimmer's ear need to be VERY cautious.  Diabetics and some others are people most likely to be at risk for "malignant otitis externa".  The term malignant is usually reserved to mean cancer, and in this case it is not used to denote cancer, but rather a very severe and life-threatening problem where the infection spreads deep into the skull base and creates serious morbidity and rarely, mortality.

Thanks for reading! Please stay tuned, let me know what topics you'd like via email ( or the comments section below, and give me feed back!

Thanks for your time and Thanks for letting me help you today!

August 09, 2016
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SINUS RINSE: How, why, and who


Many people enjoy using the sinus rinse.  And many people ask about the "correct way".  There might be more than one correct way, but we recommend......

This one in particular.  The reason, is because it is easier to use!












This one....



Is named "the Neti Pot", but the reason why I don't recommend it in particular is that it is simply more challenging.

Now, the biggest turn-offs have to do with the following:

A) Putting anything in your nose (grandma said not to!)

B) The burning sensation for novices (this usually goes away)

C) The [false] idea that the fluid MUST go from one side to the other

D) The possible gagging sensation.


Indeed, it is true that one should NOT put anything in their nose without consulting a physician first.  Maybe nasal saline spray is an exception to that "rule".

But, many find that sinus rinse can help them breathe better, and those who work in dusty, moldy, or otherwise hostile environments find that "nasal douche" cleans out the nose best.

However, there is an important caveat: a well designed study has shown that those who use the rinse every day or multiple times per day experienced a 62% DECREASE in sinus infections when they stopped doing this. 


In other words, the sinus rinse can cause sinus infections!  We believe that the reason why is due to either:

A) Changes in the cilia (little hair) function

B) Sterility of the solution or bottle

C) Expulsion of [needed] mucous "blanket" in the nose

D) other unknown factors


We believe that the rinse can be done for a cold, or after heavy dust exposure, and definitely after Nasal Surgery


The Method:

Use Distilled water (option is tap water then cooled to lukewarm..test it first!0

Fill bottle to dotted line (250 mL)

Add at least one if not two packets of premade salt/soda combo

    Homemade option is kosher or packing salt, NEVER table salt with balanced portion baking soda)

I like to put it in microwave for 10 seconds....but that's because I think the nose "prefers" lukewarm or body temperature liquid. Again, CHECK the temperature on your wrist like a baby bottle

Now, here's where it gets interesting....I tell people to rinse in the shower!  Go for a deep 80-90 degree bow like so...

This is for three reasons....and depends on leg strength:

A) Effluent (what comes out) can exit via one, the other, or both nostrils

B) Effluent is very unlikely to make you gag and go into the throat, since your torso is horizontal

C) Effluent won't wind up on your bath counter or floor!


So, if that is not possible, then try to do it as deep as you can while being safe from fall, but the downside is that it might get into the back of the nose and down into the throat.


In the end, high volume - low pressure (HVLP) rinsing is what we recommend.  The opposite (low volume - high pressure (LVHP) is discouraged.  Here is one study as to that topic:

Thanks for reading! Please stay tuned, let me know what topics you'd like via email ( or the comments section below, and give me feed back!

Thanks for your time and Thanks for letting me help you today!

August 04, 2016
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We consider nasal surgery mostly for those who have both symptoms and signs of problems in the nose.  

Other than "balloon sinuplasty", the surgery we perform is done under general anesthesia at Columbia Memorial Hospital in the city of Hudson, New York.


  • Before Surgery

Before surgery, there will be a consultation and sometimes two, with discussions about the plan and the anatomical considerations.  Many require nasal imaging (ie "CAT scans") and as a courtesy to you, hudsonENT staff will obtain prior-authorization from insurance.  If needed, you can tour the hospital.

Medicines prescribed will be used only after surgery (unless discussed), but can be picked up the evening before surgery.  Not everyone needs medicine, and the exact regimen is tailored by me for you. 

Do not take blood thinners for ten to fourteen days (10-14) before your surgery date.

These pages are helpful to determine what a blood thinner is.....


  • The Day of Surgery

You will register at the hospital ground floor, then come up to the third floor.  Ambulatory nursing will ask you questions about your health, robe you and obtain IV access (ie "put an IV in").

You will see me, the anesthesiologist, and other staff.  Your family member or friend can be with you all the way to the "preop holding area".  Thereafter, you'll be escorted into the operating room (OR).

In the OR, myself, the anesthesiologist, the surgical technician and the circulating nurse will be there during the entire procedure. The first step will be to situate you comfortably; then give medicine through the IV; then through the breathing tube.  WHile that happens, I will be working through your nostril to correct the issue for which you are there.  Be it straightening the septum or opening the sinuses, it is done through the nostrils.  

SInce the surgery is done through the nostrils, scars, "black eyes", and changes in the shape of the nose are not intended.  In fact, these would be very rare unless I have discussed this with you before-hand.

The exact steps in surgery are beyond this blog, and can be discussed with me should there be interest.

After you wake up [from anesthesia], you will be in the "PACU" (post-anesthesia care unit, aka recovery room) for an hour or so.  There will be a bandage on the nose.  You might have some ice chips here.  When the anesthesia personnel and nurses find you to be ready, you'll leave the PACU for the ambulatory bed you started at earlier in the morning, have some food and drink, then be allowed to go home if you and the ambulatory nurses feel ready.

Nasal saline spray will be required starting in PACU, given each 15 minutes, and continued until discharge.  At home, use the nasal saline as often as you can, maybe not more than once per 30 minutes but not less than once every two hours.

  • After Surgery: first week, before first "post-op" visit

At home, you can eat and drink whatever you would like.  You may bathe. In the shower, resist the urge to bow the nose!

-You should not blow your nose at all until you see me again

-You should not take blood thinners

-You should not lift anything more than ten pounds (10#), including children, TV sets, trays of baked ziti and such.

You can take acetaminophen (Tylenol) for pain, or the stronger medicine I have prescribed.  If you are constipated, do not force yourself, but take 100 mg of colace (stool softener).  Bearing down (aka Valsalva maneuver) leads to markedly increased nasal pressure, and could create a nasal hemorrage.

The top two front teeth and/or roof of the mouth might be numb or tingling.  This is normal and should resolve over time.

Expect nasal bleeding.

It should be light, but present.  If you have none, that is alright, but since I do not use nasal packing, you should expect a small trickle.  You will notice more when you go up to change the channel, grab a snack, or go to the bathroom. If you have a serious, profuse, dark red nasal bleeding please call the office right away, call 911, or proceed directly to the nearest emergency room.

For those inclined to take "alternative medicine", Arnica montana is acceptable in it's sublingual form before and after surgery.

You should not leave the general Hudson Valley area without discussing with the office [before surgery] until further notice, but typically for the first two weeks after surgery.

The nasal saline spray should be continued.  No other things shall be placed into the nose without our consent. In other words, do NOT do sinus rinse, nasal medicine spray, pepper spray, or use a finger in the nose.

The nose will be more clogged after surgery than it was before.  This is normal, expected, and temporary.  You might want to sleep on a recliner (e.g. LazyBoy), or use pillows.  A humidifier in the room on the night stand next to your head could help keep moisture.


  • First Postop: Day 8 (POD 8) or 11 (POD 11)

When you come to Hudson to have your first postop, the nose will be sprayed with the decongestant you had before and you will have something called "nasal endoscopy with debridement".

This is critical for many reasons:

1. The debris, mucus and clots are removed

2. The status of the surgery is seen

3. Any early problems with healing can be addressed and usually corrected right then and there

4. You will have relief of breathing

5. Usually, you will be relieved of peri-operative restrictions.

Sometimes, implants (but not packing) are placed in the nose.  These, sutures and such may be removed at this visit.  It will be gentle, through your nostrils, and effective. You can drive yourself to and from this appointment.

Missing this appointment can yield bad results. This appointment and it's timing are ESSENTIAL.

This next phase (after POD 8) is when the nasal saline bottle spray can be changed to as needed, and the sinus rinse will begin. We would like you to start the rinse that night (Friday night), then continue it twice a day.

The rinse is best done with your torso horizontal to the ground, which usualluy needs a shower so that your other floors don't get soiled. We will give you the rinse bottle, and you will get distilled water and packets.  Use it twice daily for the first two weeks after this visit, then once daily during weeks 3 and 4.

We usually tell patients, "you might see any color of the rainbow come out with the rinse", and then some.....including black or brown mucus.  THis is normal.  If this discoloration comes out without rinse, with fever, with pain, or something else not discussed, please notify the office right away, Sinus infections can happen after sinus surgery, especially in the first month or two as the nose is healing.

You also might see portions of clear lattice (if implant used), little blue things that look like the number one (1), and or sutures.  These can be expected, but again, if they are not seen that is acceptable as well.  Whatever surgical new-age equipment was used (eg implants, sutures, surgical fasteners), they are absorbable and "well-tolerated".

If nasal medicine is needed (e.g. fluticasone), it will be recommended at this time and should be sprayed in the nose about 15 monutes after the rinse, either morning or not but not usually both.


  • Second Postoperative Visit

About a month after the first visit, and 5 weeks or so after the surgery, you willm be seen again. Often, this visit is a check with the nasal endoscope (which interestingly is labeled surgery by your insurance but is not really surgery) and sometimes a debridement takes place here too.  As above, this means removing clots or debris.

After this, sinus rinses are recommended on an as-needed basis.

After this visit, and depending on how you are doing, Dr Kortbus will see you one, three or six months therafter.  If any concerns arise in that period, please don't hesitate to call.

When done in experienced hands, nasal surgery is meant to increase the quality of life.  Breathing typically is improved after some healing period.  Nasal surgery is not a cure for the common cold or for allergies, but nasal surgery should decrease the quantity and quality of nasal and sinus problems.

(c.f.  2014 Oct;4(10):823-7. doi: 10.1002/alr.21366. Epub 2014 Sep 11.)

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